Take a Note...
Today’s guest poster is unavailable for comment following a open toe sandal incident earlier today. Therefore inno once more wheeled me into the breech like a colossal wooden badger, set on promoting his own thoughts and ideas on papery note makin'...
Information and knowledge are not the preserve of the lecture hall nor the text book, they surround us filling our senses and yet so familiar are they we barely take time to acknowledge them before new information takes their place. Every day we find ourselves bombarded with more and more – some surf over the top leading to mediocre thinking, still others splash and play. Another group find themselves drowning in a sea of ‘stuff’ which in turn lead to procrastination. Only by critical thinking and making notes are we are able to sift through the detritus to reveal the nuggets of information on which the empires of knowledge are built upon.
Form and Function
Today we are overwhelmed with choices. Tiny business cards, Moleskine notebooks, bound lab books, loose paper. Computers; from tiny data watches to palmtops to note and laptops, even desktops for some people. Mobile phones that record a few seconds speech; dictation machines costing hundreds of dollars. The list seems endless. For most people, paper and card still holds the advantage over other forms of media. Paper and ink is relatively cheap, pencil cheaper still. It can out last any computer and papers is easily cross referenced. Let us not forget notes differ from other forms of information; notes are summarised snippets of information that we wish to retain for later use. Perhaps a research project or book. Maybe something funny we heard and wish to add to our journals. While most of us are familiar with written ones lets not forget drawings, diagrams, and conceptual maps can also make ‘good’ notes.
Bound vs. Loose Leaf
For some the choice is made for them – a bound or e-lab book is a necessity. For those of use who have a choice loose leaf paper has several advantages over bound pages or computers.
Lighten the load: It is easier to carry a few sheet of paper each day than a full size manuscript book or laptop computer.
Storage and Good Housekeeping: It is easier to discard the odd sheet of paper than an entire book and low price, large capacity hard drives encourage us to store vast amounts of useless data rather than be selective in our choices.
Indexing and Filing: is far less difficult when one can move individual pages. Although advances have been made in software design and there are a plethora of Personal Information Managers on the market, few if any live up to expectations and all force the user to alter their thinking.
Lessening Loss: We have all been there, hours of work vanishes in to thin air. Lessen the risks by spreading the work between ring binder and envelope folders.
Privacy and Ethics: I have placed these two together as we cannot have rights unless we also have responsibilities. Sometimes we need things to remain private and one of the simplest ways is to record the data on paper and move the entire page to a new folder rather than try to encrypt odd files. (Note: By privacy and ethics I refer not only to plagiarism, but also how one records, uses and stores personal information about other people).
Whether one uses notebooks, loose leaf or computers for primary note making, as with the humble towel one should feel naked without a small field notebook or organiser in addition to their main capture device.
Methods: What to take and how to take it.
Date: Some people try to use chronological information for indexing and soon abandon it for more efficient methods. Dating one’s notes has a different purpose entirely. It enables one to track to the history of their thinking and in the case of certain types of research the date on which a discovery was made.
Source: Where did your information come from? Sometimes one needs to state which book, website or article your information came from. And this is important to note along with that quote. For proper citation one also needs to add the reference to a database. Index/record cards are the traditional method however I recommend setting up an e-database. Anything from a simple spreadsheet to Bibus. I use EndNote to avoid fighting the Python. There are a wide range of downloadable ‘style guides’ as well as supporting an array of academic and professional on-line databases available for EndNote.
There are a number of referencing methods that one may come across. Each one is designed to meet the needs of a particular group. For example:
- APA (American Psychological Association)
- Chicago-Style (The Chicago Manual of Style)
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
- OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities)
- The Vancouver System. (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors)
Unless told otherwise try to use the Harvard system (BS 5605:1990 and BS 1629:1998, or BS ISO 690-2: 1997 for e-references). The main advantage being that one inserts a short citation in one’s notes linked to a full citation in the bibliography.
Notes on Plagiarism: The OED defines plagiarism as: "the act of taking and using as one’s own of the thoughts, writings, or inventions of another". If one uses the intellectual property of another person without the proper acknowledgment, usually through citations, this is plagiarism. Even if it's unintentional. However, if something is common knowledge simple obscured by use of uncommon language then it is not plagiarism to use it in one’s own words.
Remember it is much easier to find a reference if you add both page number and paragraph where applicable.
If you did an on-line search remember to record the search string in you notes too.
What things are good to capture?
Record general ideas, thoughts, concepts, quotes (underline or highlight so that they stand out and use sparingly). Find the arguments, assumptions and opinions note them down. Record evidence to support or contradict the underlying assumptions which may be buried in emotive language or other rhetorical tricks – never forget note making is a form of critical thinking.
Try not limit yourself only to concepts and words which you understand, write down those which you do not. If you're always looking up a new word, why not note it down along with its definition. Some things are easier to grasp than others and unless one wishes to limit their thinking to self-help titles building thinking skills, vocabulary and a strong knowledge base are of the utmost importance.
Restate in your own words and avoid jargon. For example: unless one is making notes on law there is no place for the word ‘actionable’ in one's notes. Use standard abbreviation such as viz. and et al. However try not to make up new ones. One has to be able to read their notes at a later date.
Do not be afraid to use pictures and analogies if these seem helpful. Pictures can be worth a thousand words. Remember you cannot explain that which you do not understand yourself.
Only use one side of the paper – When it is time to spread out you notes out and the only surface not in use is the floor you will understand why we only use the one side.
A short list of common methods:
Marginalia: Henry the VIII of England made margin notes as have countless other over the centuries. However it has two disadvantages over other forms of note making. One, the note remains in the book and two it defaces the book. Far better to take a photocopy and deface that. At least then one’s notes remain with the other data. The same applies to underlines, highlighting and other dubious practice.
Sentence: Here we write each thought, idea and concept on a new line double spaced. It is fast and simple, yet it is let down badly by lack of structure. For anyone using this method it is wise to read and revise one’s notes as soon as possible.
Columns: Benjamin Franklin used columns for his “pros and cons”. Simply mark off one third to the left of the page and write down the key points. In the right hand column add the details, including page and paragraph where relevant. Again one should leave a line or two between thoughts.
Cornell: The Cornell method (created by Walter Paulk at Cornell University) has two advantages over other forms of note making. Firstly, they can be used for any subject and second, they are self contained. They also happen to be my favourite method.
Take a sheet of paper and mark off the bottom two inches (50 mm on A4) then two and a half inches (40 mm on A4) on the left. For those adverse to rules try Cornell Notes Template, Cornell index card, or look through the Template directories
At the top of the right hand column write the date and detail of the book, journal, lecture - whatever one is taking notes of. Followed by:
Record: Your notes in the usual way. (keywords on the left main body on the right).
Question: The ideas you have been presented with. (I find a thesaurus and technical dictionary invaluable for this sort of work).
Recite: Cover the right hand column with a blank sheet of paper. Reading the keywords on the left, what can you remember of your notes?
Reflect: On the material you have gathered. Try to condense the key point and add them to the summary box at the bottom.
Review: Get into the habit of a ten minute review once a week. As you skill increase you will find new questions and ways of seeing things. Never be afraid to reflect these in your notes. (I use a red pen for updates).
Mapping: Three men are responsible for the popular rise in ‘idea maps’; E C Tolman (Cognitive Maps), J D Novak (Concept Maps) and Tony Buzan (Mind Maps) ‘Maps’ use concepts and ideas as nodes, interconnected by branches. The main difference being Mind Maps can only support on key idea whereas Concept Maps support limitless amounts. While these can be useful for quickly developing concepts and ideas. For example ‘brain storming’. I remain sceptical as to their application in note taking. For those who are interested in finding out more I have add links to Novak and Buzan’s respective websites.
Index (record) cards: An article on paper based note making would not be complete without a mention of the humble record card. These can be utilise in two ways: to capture data in lieu of a field notebook or to capture individual notes, one per card. The advantage is said to be that they are cheap, stronger than paper and can be shuffled like a deck of cards, therefore presenting the data in a randomised fashion. To my mind the main disadvantage is ‘knowledge fragmentation’ Obviously the knowledge should be in the owner of the notes head, however by splitting rather than building a web of information I find important contextual is lost or ignored. For those who need a practical example try Googling the word ‘shoe’, I got 56,000,000 in 0.08 seconds and some of the result were odd to say the least.
|Click book to purchase|
|Learning How to Learn|
author: Joseph D. Novak,D. Bob Gowin
ASIN or ISBN-10: 0521319269
|The Logic of Real Arguments|
author: Alec Fisher
ASIN or ISBN-10: 0521654815
|Thinking and Reasoning|
author: Alan Garnham,Jane Oakhill
ASIN or ISBN-10: 0631170030
|Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps(tm) As Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations|
author: Joseph D. Novak
ASIN or ISBN-10: 0805826254